Zika Virus – Symptoms and its prevention

Zika Virus Infection is mainly caused due to mosquito bites by the Aedes group of mosquitoes. This mosquito usually bites during the daytime only. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, this is related to dengueyellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis. Now we will see its symptoms and its prevention.

The Zika virus disease is sporadic in condition which means the disorder occurs only infrequently, haphazardly, irregularly, or occasionally, from time to time in a few isolated places, with no discernible temporal or spatial pattern. It was first found in humans in the 1950s in African countries, and then sporadic outbreaks happened in America as well as in African countries in the 1980s. In India, the cases of ZIKV disease were found in 2018 in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan State. It is slowly growing in India. Now in 2022-23, some cases were found in Karnataka and Maharashtra state.

Zika Virus
Zika Virus

Causes and Transmission of Zika Virus

As discussed earlier in the introduction it is caused by to Aedes group of mosquitoes. Human-to-human transmission of this virus is caused by the Infected mosquito of the Aedes group mainly the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This mosquito also transmits Dengue fever, Chikungunya, and Yellow fever. This mosquito bites only in the daytime or in the early evening.

Zika virus is also transmitted from infected mother to fetus which is a serious condition of this virus; In 2016 World Health Organization declared a Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) for congenital microcephaly linked with Zika Virus infection.

This disease is also transferred due to unsafe sexual contact, transfusion of infected blood or products, and organ transplantations.

Aedes aegypti mosquito
Aedes aegypti mosquito

6 Signs and Symptoms of Zika Virus

The incubation period of the it is about 03 to 14 days; which means after infection of this virus symptom develops after 3 to 14 days. Most People do not show Major symptoms after this viral infection. But in some cases as with other viral Infections symptoms are shown as

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Skin Rash
  • Arthritis or Joint pain
  • Myalgia or Body Pain
  • Conjunctivitis etc

Symptoms may last for 3 to 7 days of infection.

Skin Rash
Skin Rash

Complications of Zika Virus disease

Congenital Zika Syndrome: – is a severe complication of Zika virus infection in pregnant women. Zika Virus during Pregnancy causes birth defects like microcephaly and other congenital malformations in infants which include limb contractures, eye abnormalities, high muscle tone hearing loss, etc. Zika virus infection in pregnant women may lead to fetal loss, stillbirth, or preterm birth. It also causes Gullian barre syndrome.

Congenital Zika Syndrome
Congenital Zika Syndrome

In Adults the complications are rare but in some cases, the Zika virus can cause Gullaine-barre syndrome, myelitis, and neuropathy.

Diagnosis of Zika Virus disease

Diagnosis of Zika fever is done by testing the Blood, Urine, and Saliva for the presence of it RNA on presenting symptoms like Zika fever or in sporadic conditions.

Prevention or Home Care for Zika Virus Disease

As discussed above in this post the main causative factor of Zika virus disease is Aedes aegypti mosquito, prevention from mosquito bites may reduce the chances of infection. For this, the following measures can be adopted

  • Use of mosquito repellant creams, coils, liquids, etc.
  • Use mosquito nets on the bed.
  • Use full-sized dresses to avoid mosquito bites
  • As Aedes aegypti mosquito breeds in clean water keep the surrounding area clean, clean, and dry all vessels once a week this may prevent the production of Larvae.
  • Remove standing water in Flowerpots etc. once a week.
  • Use Larvicide or insecticide to reduce mosquito population and disease.

Using contraceptive measures during sex may reduce the chances of infection, All should promote safe sexual contact may prevent many other diseases from spreading from infected persons to other persons like Hepatitis B, HIV, etc.

To date no vaccine is available to prevent Zika Virus Infection, so using the above preventive measures may reduce the chance of infection from this virus.

Treatment of Zika Virus Disease

No specific treatment is available for Zika virus fever.

As with other Viral fevers

  • Patients should Rest for at least 2-3 days or symptoms subside.
  • Keep hydrated by drinking plenty of water, a Liquid diet, etc.
  • If patients have high fever, Headache you should take Antipyretics like Paracetamol, Avoid Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided until dengue virus infections are ruled out due to the risk of bleeding disorder.
  • If symptoms worsen patients should take Expert medical advice and seek care.

Infection in Pregnant women may need specific care by doing Laboratory tests, Ultrasound tests, counselling, and expert medical advice and clinical care.


This disease is not very dangerous. Just don’t allow mosquitoes to breed near the house. In case of illness, take rest and take a liquid diet.


Q. What happens if a pregnant woman gets a Zika virus infection?

A. If a pregnant woman gets an infection then birth defects like microcephaly may cause.

Q. Can the Zika virus be cured?

A. Zika virus be cured but it has no specific treatment available. The patient cures by rest, taking plenty of water and a liquid diet.

Q. Which mosquito causes Zika?

A. This infection is mainly caused due to mosquito bites by the Aedes group of mosquitoes.




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