PCOD Vs. PCOS – How To Treat It?

Hey, Drsuleinfohub family members Today we will see PCOD vs. PCOS and how to treat it. What is PCOD? PCOD, also known as Polycystic Ovarian Disease, is a condition characterized by the presence of immature eggs in large quantity which becomes small cysts or follicles on the ovaries. These cysts can disturb the normal functioning of the ovaries.

Now we will see What PCOS is.  PCOS is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. It’s not just about ovarian cysts but it is a complex condition that involves multiple factors like Polycystic Ovaries, Irregular Menstrual Cycles, Hyperandrogenism, Insulin Resistance, Weight Gain and Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk, and Emotional disturbance.

Diagnosis of PCOD vs. PCOS

Diagnostic criteria for PCOD-

1) USG( Abd. pelvic)– In sonography appearance of ovaries is small fluid-filled cysts and follicles.

2) Hormonal Imbalances-Hormonal Imbalances are not diagnostic criteria for PCOD.PCOD does not strictly depend on the presence of hormonal imbalances. While hormonal irregularities can be associated with PCOD and may appear as symptoms such as acne or excessive hair growth, they are not compulsory  Diagnostic criteria for PCOD.

So doctor observed ovarian cysts in the USG report for diagnosis.

Diagnostic Criteria for PCOS 

Diagnosis of PCOS is not deepened on single criteria but it depends on multiple factors.
1)Polycystic Ovaries- 
It is one of the primary criteria for diagnosing PCOS. This is typically confirmed through sonography. Polycystic ovaries often appear enlarged and contain multiple small fluid-filled cysts or follicles.
2) Irregular Menstrual Cycles-
Irregular menstrual cycles are a common feature of PCOS. In these infrequent periods, unpredictable cycles, or extended periods of amenorrhea (lack of menstruation) occur. Irregular menstruation is an important component of the diagnostic criteria as it reflects the hormonal disturbances associated with PCOS.
3) Hyperandrogenism:
Hyperandrogenism, the presence of elevated levels of androgens (typically considered “male” hormones), is another significant criterion for PCOS diagnosis. Androgens are male hormones but androgens are produced in females as well in very small quantities. Due to high levels of Androgens Clinical symptoms appear. Clinical symptoms of hyperandrogenism may include acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth, particularly in male-pattern areas like the face or chest), and male-pattern baldness.
4) Other conditions– Thyroid disorders, hyperprolactinemia, and non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia may be seen. The doctor will rule out PCOS after observing symptoms.
5)Blood tests –  Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). These tests can provide further information about hormonal imbalances associated with PCOS.
So doctor will make the diagnosis of PCOS by taking a detailed medical history, menstrual history and physical examination.

Symptoms of PCOD/PCOS

Some symptoms are present in both PCOD/PCOS. They are –

Irregular Menstrual Cycles: Irregular Menstrual periods are a hallmark of PCOS and PCOD. Some individuals may experience heavy or prolonged bleeding, while others may have scanty periods. It may be also infrequent, or unpredictable

Ovulatory Dysfunction: Ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries, can be disturbed in PCOS and PCOD. This can lead to infertility.

Hormonal Imbalances: Increased levels of androgens/male hormones such as testosterone are common in PCOS and PCOD. This can result in hormonal imbalances that lead to symptoms like acne, oily skin, and male-pattern hair growth (hirsutism). Hormonal imbalance may or may not present in PCOD.
Acne and Skin Issues: Hormonal fluctuations can lead to acne breakouts and skin issues, particularly in the chin, jawline, and back areas.
Hirsutism: Common symptoms of PCOS and PCOD are excessive and unwanted hair growth, often in male-pattern areas like the face, chest, back, and abdomen.
Hair Thinning and Male-Pattern Baldness: Hair thinning on the scalp or male-pattern baldness is due to the influence of androgens.
Weight Gain and Obesity: Weight gain, especially around the abdomen, is common.
Mood Swings and Psychological Distress: Hormonal fluctuations and fertility concerns can contribute to mood swings, anxiety, depression, and psychological distress in individuals with both conditions.
Reproductive Health Challenges: Fertility issues, such as difficulty conceiving, recurrent miscarriages, and complications during pregnancy (such as gestational diabetes), are common among individuals with PCOS and PCOD

Symptoms unique to PCOS:

PCOS is linked with metabolic syndromes like:

-Hormonal imbalance may or may not be present in PCOD but it is always present in PCOS.

-Insulin Resistance: While insulin resistance can occur in both PCOS and PCOD, it tends to be more prominent in PCOS cases. Elevated insulin levels and impaired glucose metabolism are more commonly associated with PCOS. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can occur.

-Cardiovascular Risk: PCOS is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and abnormal lipid profiles, compared to PCOD.
-Sleep Apnea: Sleep apnea, characterized by interruptions in breathing during sleep, is more prevalent in individuals with PCOS, particularly those who are obese.
-Uterine Cyst
Symptoms of PCOD and PCOS
Symptoms of PCOD/PCOS

Treatment and Management

PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease)

Focus on Symptom Management: 
It often presents with various symptoms such as irregular periods, heavy bleeding, acne, and hirsutism (excess hair growth). Treatment aims to alleviate these symptoms.
Hormonal birth control methods like birth control pills or hormonal IUDs may be prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce heavy bleeding.
Lifestyle Modifications and Pain Relief:
Lifestyle changes are important. Maintain weight by doing exercise and by planning a proper diet.
Pain relief medications like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be recommended to manage pelvic pain.

B. PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)

Holistic Approach Addressing Multiple Aspects:
PCOS is a more complex condition that typically involves hormonal imbalances, insulin resistance, and various symptoms. Treatment takes a holistic approach.
Management focuses on regulating hormones, controlling insulin levels, and addressing specific symptoms.
Lifestyle Changes (Diet, Exercise):
-Weight management is a key aspect of Its management since excess weight can worsen insulin resistance.
-Your food is your medicine. Stop eating processed/ packaged food. You need to eat fresh food. Try the Healthy plate method. When you take your food take half a plate of fruit, 1/4th of this plate is protein-rich food like daal or paneer and the remaining 1/4th part will be complex carbohydrates like roti, or rice. First, eat salad.
– Avoid spicy, junk food.
– Take fresh fruits. Take healthy juices.
-Take less refined sugar in food.
-Regular exercise is important for improving insulin sensitivity and overall health. Spend a minimum of 20 minutes for exercise.
Exercises for PCOD/PCOS-
Don’t underestimate walking. It does not need any equipment. It releases happy hormones. Walking, running, and jogging improve cardiovascular fitness and it helps to reverse PCOD also.
Jumping Jacks– It will balance heart rate and increase blood circulation.
Yoga asanas for PCOD/ PCOS
 –Baddhkonasana or Butterfly Pose–  This pose will relieve cramps and backache.
-Ustrasana or Camel pose–  It is a very good asana for the pelvic region.
-Shalabhasana or locust pose- It is a good pose to reduce belly fat and strengthen the backbone.
Exercises for PCOD/PCOS
Exercises for PCOD/PCOS
Medications for PCOS:
Hormonal birth control pills can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce symptoms like acne and excess hair growth.
Anti-androgen medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms like hirsutism and acne.
Metformin, a medication used to treat insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, may be recommended to improve insulin sensitivity.
Fertility Treatments (If Needed):
For individuals with PCOS who are trying to conceive and experiencing infertility, fertility treatments such as ovulation induction with medications like clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., in vitro fertilization) may be considered.
In both, it’s crucial for individuals to work closely with doctors, such as gynaecologists or endocrinologists, to create a personalized treatment plan. The specific approach may vary depending on the severity of the condition and individual needs. Additionally, ongoing management and monitoring are often necessary to ensure that symptoms are effectively controlled and any potential complications are addressed.

2 thoughts on “PCOD Vs. PCOS – How To Treat It?”

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